A new single-cell firing study from MIT observes prefrontal activation to assign salience to novel stimuli, and parietal activity to draw attention to stimuli already recognized as salient. What I'm more excited about, is their discussion of neural synchrony as a conduit of information.
This review article from last fall provides a nice overview, and I've been seeing it crop up more and more. Unfortunately fMRI is too slow to capture this information; the review discusses EEG studies in humans. Perhaps it is time to start thinking about this signal domain and its application to neuroeconomics.